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The Chinese Government’s Policy Toward North Korean Defectors

Title: The Chinese Government’s Policy Toward North Korean DefectorsFALL2013 COVER OUT IMAGE
Author: Eunbee Chung
Affiliation: Yonsei University
Issue: Changes & Transitions – Volume 5 Issue 2
Publisher: Yonsei University Press
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The Chinese government’s repatriation policy for North Korean defectors has been a topic of controversy. Due to deteriorating living conditions in North Korea, many flee North Korea to find food or work. Many of them go to China, and yet they are greeted by hostility. While humanitarian activists and organizations urge the government to issue refugee status, Beijing identifies them as illegal economic migrants and forcibly returns them to North Korea where severe punishments await. The current essay assumes that Beijing’s repatriation of North Koreans is a breach to international refugee law, and explores political, economic, and social reasons contributing to the decision.

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The Way of Bureaucracy: A Critical Examination of Classic Comparative Bureaucracy Literature

Title: The Way of Bureaucracy:  A Critical Examination of Classic Comparative Bureaucracy LiteratureFALL2013 COVER OUT IMAGE
Author: Joel R. Campbell
Affiliation: Troy University
Issue: Changes & Transitions – Volume 5 Issue 2
Publisher: Yonsei University Press
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Introduction

Large bureaucratic organizations have become a key fact of life in modern polities. As bureaucracy has become an important concern in national politics, it has grown as a focus of comparative political analysis. Previous studies dealt with basics of bureaucratic organization in developed and developing countries, beginning with the theoretical insights of Max Weber, Robert Michels, and other early social theorists in the early twentieth century. Weber set the standard for viewing bureaucracy in terms of rational decision-making, hierarchical organization, and standard operating procedures. Over the past half century, a large body of writings has attempted to construct basic theories of bureaucracy. As a result, there is now an improved understanding of bureaucracy as a significant component of both politics practiced in the advanced industrial countries (AICs), especially Western European countries, and the process of political and economic development elsewhere. This paper looks at four critical classic works in the comparative analysis of bureaucracy in terms of their key contributions to early postwar political theory.

This article examines main ideas of this important classic comparative bureaucracy analysis literature. The authors’ arguments parallel one another and together suggest the main elements of mainstream thinking about bureaucratic organization in the late twentieth century. Downs sets forth a series of “non-obvious” hypotheses that provide heuristic tools for study of bureaucratic organizations. Auerbach, et al. considers the “generic behavior patterns” of bureaucrats across Western countries. Crozier focuses on the nature of bureaucratic organizations in France, and examines the general applicability of French experience to other countries. Harrison assesses the usefulness of a corporatist model, whereby a state sets up exclusive organizations to represent certain segments of society, such as business, labor, or farmers; this aids understanding how bureaucratic units of the twentieth century reacted to emerging social problems. The article also suggests that the changing nature of political and economic challenges in Western countries is altering the very nature of bureaucratic action and politics.

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“Landscape as Political Project” – The “Greening” of North Korea, Sincerity or Otherwise? Investigating the Process of Ideological Incorporation in North Korea

Title: “Landscape as Political Project” – The “Greening” of North Korea, Sincerity or Otherwise? Investigating the Process of Ideological Incorporation in North Korea FALL2013 COVER OUT IMAGE
Author: Robert Winstanley-Chesters
Affiliation: University of Leeds
Issue: Changes & Transitions – Volume 5 Issue 2
Publisher: Yonsei University Press
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Environmental management and practical policy strategies relating to it have always been an important part of North Korea’s approach to what would be locally described as “revolutionary” industrial/economic development. However, since the collapse of the wider Soviet Bloc, and the famine period of the mid 1990s, it has been possible to determine a change in policies relating to the management of the natural world in North Korea. Pyongyang’s government and institutions have begun to respond to developing themes within the theory and policy of governments, strategists and theoreticians from the wider world inspired by concepts of “conservation” and “preservation,” derived from environmental or “green” movements. North Korea has sought to incorporate such governmental or strategic themes within its ideology—in ways that do not destabilize its own philosophical or governmental frameworks, but instead serve to strengthen them. Accordingly, projects within North Korea, whose focus is environmental management, have begun to resemble those of the wider world and in the closer East Asian neighborhood, but to what end: environmental rehabilitation or regime survival? This paper builds on previous research identifying historical narratives relating to environmental management within North Korea and the routes through which its institutions translate ideological or philosophical development into practical policy; it investigates the routes through which North Korea incorporates foreign or external ideas within its own theoretical construct—how these ideas and projects spurred by them are utilised for domestic and international propaganda needs. It seeks to evaluate if the sincerity or otherwise of such an incorporation can be established and ultimately whether this would prove useful in the development of analysis focused on construction or translation of theoretical development or institutional functionality within North Korea.

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Why has the Diaoyu/Senkaku Dispute been Intensified and What are the Possible Resolutions?

Title: Why has the Diaoyu/Senkaku Dispute been Intensified and What are the Possible Resolutions?FALL2013 COVER OUT IMAGE
Author: Eunsil Park
Affiliation: Yonsei University
Issue: Changes & Transitions – Volume 5 Issue 2
Publisher: Yonsei University Press
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The Diaoyu/Senkaku dispute is a territorial conflict between China and Japan, and there have been ups and downs over several decades. As China’s assertiveness has been increased from the late 2000s, much attention has been paid to the relationship between China and Japan. The issue is related with each state’s strategic, economic and symbolic interests, which makes the nature of the dispute complex. In this paper, it is argued that the growing tension between China and Japan is largely influenced by the changing international structure due to the rise of China, and the issue is reinforced by domestic politics as the politicians could utilize the issue as a political tool to gain public support based upon strong nationalism in China and Japan. There are three options available to resolve the conflict: military confrontation, the US intervention, and the international legal institution. These options will be critiqued with a meaningful analysis, and the paper suggests that a long-term resolution should be adopted by emphasizing the importance of public education and cooperative measures to develop the area for both states’ benefits after recovering mutual trust.

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Emerging Donors and Knowledge Sharing for Development: The Case of Korea

Title: Emerging Donors and Knowledge Sharing for Development: The Case of KoreaFALL2013 COVER OUT IMAGE
Author: Moctar Aboubacar
Affiliation: A Project Manager at the World Food Program’s Rwanda Country Office
Issue: Changes & Transitions – Volume 5 Issue 2
Publisher: Yonsei University Press
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The field of international development cooperation has been heavily influenced by “emerging donors”, countries which have seen significant development and which have begun to form their own international development programs. Countries like South Korea are capitalizing on their own development history to engage developing countries to learn from successful past policy experiences. However South Korea’s burgeoning knowledge sharing programs present an important set of pitfalls; the state’s quasi-monopoly over how the country’s past development is interpreted, along with the narrow conception of the development experiences to be shared both limit the effectiveness of exporting such policies. Korea can capitalize on the wealth of lessons from its past development on the international stage if it presents a convincing heterodox paradigm for development while opening up interpretations of the past to wider societal debate, and if it shifts to an understanding of its own development history which transcends sole economic interpretations.

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The Donga Ilbo Advertising Coercion and Forced Layoff Case

FALL2013 COVER OUT IMAGE

Title: The Donga Ilbo Advertising Coercion and Forced Layoff Case
Author: Seongbak Jin
Affiliation: Yonsei University
Issue: Changes and Transitions – Volume 5, Issue 2
Publisher: Yonsei University Press
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This paper looks at the Donga Ilbo Advertising Coercion and Forced Layoff Case in South Korea during the years 1974-1975, focusing on the confluence of three institutions: the press, the state, and commercial forces. A look into history finds that the state, dissatisfied with the Donga Ilbo’s reporting, leveraged market forces to force it into compliance with its view of proper reporting. This represented a watershed moment in the history of press-state relations in South Korea. The highly contentious state-press relationship, observed at the time of the layoff, can still be seen today. To explore the relationship between the press, the state, and commercial forces, this paper does the following: First, theories of media are introduced to provide a basis for analysis. Second, a brief history of the Korean press leading up the Donga Ilbo case is covered followed by a detailed overview of the layoff case itself. Lastly, the paper concludes by commenting on the implications of a contentious state-press relationship and current government-media relations in South Korea.

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Ethiopia’s Intervention in Somalia, 2006-2009

Title: Ethiopia’s Intervention in Somalia, 2006-20092.2 Cover
Author: Braden Civins 
Affiliation: University of Texas
Issue: Volume 2, Issue 2 (Fall/Winter 2010)
Publisher: Yonsei University Press
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This analysis attempts to address the negative effects of Ethiopian military intervention on Somali civilians from late 2006 to early 2009. In order to gauge the effect of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU)’s governance on the humanitarian situation in Somalia, it is necessary to thoroughly examine and compare the number of civilian displacements, casualties and deaths caused by the military conflict and other factors (e.g. famine and flood) that occurred before and during the ICU’s brief reign. To determine the immediate effects of Ethiopia’s military intervention, this analysis examines statistical data regarding the rates of internal displacement, emigration and civilian deaths. The analysis also considers firsthand accounts provided by Somali civilians in determining the role of intervention-related violence in driving displacement and casualty trends. In many instances, the numbers of civilian casualties and displacements also reflect the nature of the combat tactics employed by all sides of the conflict; these tactics are examined through civilian accounts, NGO reports and UN documentation to determine the extent to which the combative parties either intentionally or recklessly inflicted suffering upon the Somali populace. Finally, comparing the humanitarian situation in Somali in the period immediately following the Ethiopian National Defense Force’s withdrawal to conditions that existed immed im immediately prior to the invasion provides evidence as to the net effect of Ethiopia’s intervention.

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